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l,,|8 " X "",84:> ,dj PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF NATURAL SCIENCES
Modern physical picture of world
Lectures for 1st course students of Master programme in Physics (36 h)
Lecturer: Prof. A.D. Sukhanov, Dr. Sci.
Physical picture of world as the intergal picture of Nature. Conceptual structure of modern physics. Feynman model of Nature: object and its surroundings. Classical and nonclassical physics on micro- and macro- levels of despription.
Space of events and models of objects (corpuscule, continuum) in classical physics. Substance and electromagnetic radiation as forms of matter. Special Relativity basic of unity of classical physics on microlevel. Fundamental constant speed of light in vacuum.
Corpuscule and system of corpuscules. Mass, momentum, energy and moment as the fundamental characteristics of objects. Conservation laws and its link to properties of space and time.
Concept of regular influence and interaction. Deterministic and stochastic description of motion. Concept of quasiparticles in classical dynamics and its realization in description of diverse physical systems.
Continuum (continous medium). Concept of normal modes and its realization in description of diverse physical systems: elastic oscillations in cristals, quasistationary electric current. Perfect conductors, superconductors and plasma in quasistationary electromagnetic field.
Concept of superposition of states in classical dynamics. Basic and superponed states: dispersion laws and spatial forms of states. Polarization states of electromagnetic radiation.
Ideas of reductionism and independence of micro- and macro- descriptive levels. Additive and transitional macroparameters (temperature, internal energy, entropy as fundamental characteristics of macrosystem). Physical aspects of Mach principle.
Thermodynamics and geometry as the most general realization of Feynman model of description of Nature. Classical models of macrosurroundings: thermostat and black hole. Modern treatment of notions and laws of classical thermodynamics.
Curvature of space-time in classical theory of gravity. Fundamental constant-Newton gravitational constant. Idea of relationship of space-time and matter in General Relativity. Problems of stability and integrity of classical description in physics.
Feynman model of nonclassical picture of world: stochastic influence and fluctuations of physical characteristics. Concept of ensemble description. State space: quantum and heat states. Fundamental constants Planck and Boltzmann constants.
Quanton as model of object in quantum state. Concept of superpostion of quantum states. Nonstability of De Broglie waves packet. Idea of integrity of quantum states and modern treatment of correspondece principle.
Quantum fluctuations of quanton characteristics. Concept of fluctuation correlation in quantum states. Schrodingr uncertainty relation and its particular versions. Transitions between quantum states and stochastic exchange interaction.
Concept of identity of quantons: bosons and fermions. Role of quasiparticles idea in nonclassical physics. Relativity of borders between micro- and macro- descriptions of physical systems.
Concept of elementarity in microworld and its limits. Standard model of elementary particles and fundamental interactions. Quantum fields, particles and antiparticles, physical vacuum. Quarks and leptons. Idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Heat states. Brownian motion. Generalized heat equilibrium. Concept of fluctuation correlation in heat states. Einstein uncertainty relations for macroparameters.
Integrity problem of nonclassical description of Nature in physics. @>1;5<0 F5;>AB=>AB8 =5:;0AA8G5A:>3> >?8A0=8O ?@8@>4K 2 D878:5. Mutual influence of quantum and heat stochastic effects. Quantum-heat fluctuations.
Principles of construction of integral multidimensional physical picture of world. Modern treatment of correspondence principle: relationship of classical and nonclassical descriptions. Four fundamental constants and stability of modern physical picture of world.
Concepts of evolution and self-organization in Nature. A brief essay on natural history of world since Big Bang until our times. Simplest models of self-organization. Applicability limits of modern physical theories: Planck quantities, dark energy, dark matter.
PAGE 2
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